Assessment of changing trends of risk factors contributing to Intellectual Disability – A retrospective study

Original Article

Author Details : S Shankar*, M Rajeswari

Volume : 7, Issue : 1, Year : 2021

Article Page : 11-19

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Background: The etiology of Intellectual Disability is varied and difficult to establish. Reports from India on the spectrum of underlying causative factors are lacking. So this retrospective study was conducted to identify the various etiologies of Intellectual Disability (ID).
Materials and Methods: Study was conducted at a tertiary care center. The etiology of ID was ascertained after clinical assessment. Two groups were ascertained Group A those who were born in 2000 and before and group B those who were born in 2001 and after. The spectrum of causative conditions was identified. Results: In both groups the prevalence of ID was higher among males than in females. No major difference in domicile was noted. More than 75% children were off springs of non-consanguineous parents. Most of them belong to mild ID (45%) in both groups. The etiological yield was 18.33% in group A and 11.66% in group B with Prenatal cause, followed by perinatal 48.33% in group A and 55% in group B, being the most common and postnatal cause 8.33% and 5% in group A and B respectively. Idiopathic causes constitute 20% in group A and 25% in group B, Few cases fall under multiple etiologies. 
Conclusion: It is possible to ascertain the diagnosis in most of the cases of intellectual disability. The prenatal and postnatal causes are decreasing due to awareness of Antenatal checkup, and active treatment respectively. But the Perinatal cause, which is preventable one, is increasing, which needs active intervention; also idiopathic cause which needs thorough screening.

Keywords: Etiology, Intellectual disability (ID).

How to cite : Shankar S , Rajeswari M , Assessment of changing trends of risk factors contributing to Intellectual Disability – A retrospective study. IP Indian J Neurosci 2021;7(1):11-19

Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and IP Indian J Neurosci. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (

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